Milk is made of the protein casein. The hydrolases bring about hydrolysis: this is the breaking of chemical bonds with the addition water. Sometimes this is useful when the product itself serves as the allosteric inhibitor, because this is usually a sign of the reaction having proceeded to the point where additional product is no longer required. Every organism – from the one-celled bacterium to the trillion-celled elephant – has many enzymes at work. Formerly with ScienceBlogs.com and the editor of "Run Strong," he has written for Runner's World, Men's Fitness, Competitor, and a variety of other publications. Extreme levels of pH, high temperatures, and corrosive chemicals are required to make the reaction in a laboratory. (It also gives us the word zymurgy, which is not only often the last word in the dictionary but also the branch of chemistry that deals with wine-making and brewing.) This determines the specific molecules on which they act. The semi-solid curds sit in the stomach longer. But they also noticed that some reactions occurred without the living organisms themselves but instead just some of their extracts. The electron-pair donor is said to be oxidized and acts as a reducing agent, while the electron-pair recipient is reduced is called the oxidizing agent. The lyases are also sometimes called synthase enzymes. These reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). Enzymes are the catalysts that make the speed and processes of life possible. Ø Two types of Allosteric enzymes based on the nature of modulator: 1. More about Kevin and links to his professional work can be found at www.kemibe.com. An enzyme is a substance – usually a protein – created by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about life-sustaining biochemical reactions. Hydrolysis reactions use water (H2O) to split a bond in a molecule to create two daughter products, usually by affixing the -OH (hydroxyl group) from the water to one of the products and a single -H (hydrogen atom) to the other. The creation of new tissue – the replacement of old tissue – the conversion of food into energy – the disposal of waste – reproduction: these are all the characteristics of life. Enzyme amylase breaks down carbohydrates to simpler forms like glucose. Enzymes are therefore substrate-specific. This can be helpful in pharmacology because microbiologists can design compounds that compete with the binding sites of bacterial enzymes, making it much harder for the bacteria to cause disease or survive in the human body, period. Without this breakdown the milk would be digested too swiftly and the nourishing ability would be lost. Nerve gas and penicillin both make use of this type of inhibition, albeit with massively different intentions in mind. Oxidoreductases enhance the rate of oxidation and reduction reactions. Scientists in the 19th century, like Louis Pasteur, observed that some chemical reactions occurred with the addition of ferments, or living organisms like yeast. Enzymes catalyze some 4000 known biochemical reactions. Some are found only within cells and participate in processes involving small molecules, such as glycolysis; others are secreted directly into the gut and act on bulk matter such as swallowed food. The chemical and physical changes that go on categorize something as organic life. This breakdown is vital to young mammals, who need to derive their nutrition from their mother’s milk. Lysis reactions – those that generate a double bond – are brought about by lyase enzymes. Lysis reactions are the kind of elimination reactions that are not hydrolytic or oxidative. Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation or reduction reactions. 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