Projects for which condensation control is a critical concern, such as high interior humidity buildings, require project-specific finite element analysis thermal modeling using software such as THERM. Verifying track records may require significant research by the designer. Therefore the connections to anchor the curtain wall must be designed to allow differential movement while resisting the loads applied. Frame corner seals constructed using sealant are prone to debonding from prolonged contact with moisture and from thermal, structural, and transportation movements. These systems provide confidence that the materials used for perimeter containment remain in place for the specified duration of the required rating in a fire event. The following summarizes recommended features: Pressure Plate Glazing: In this system the glass and infill panels are installed from the exterior, typically against dry gaskets. Refer to AAMA 1503 for descriptions of test method, parameters and equipment for determining U factors and CRF's for window products. The advantages of the unitized system derive from the more reliable seals achievable from factory construction and the reduced cost of labor in the factory versus that of high rise field labor. Some "poured and debridged" polyurethane thermal breaks shrink and stress forms in the thermal break when the exterior aluminum moves differently from the interior aluminum due to temperature differences. Exterior glazed systems require swing stage or scaffolding access to the exterior of the curtain wall for repair or replacement. Typical opaque panels include opacified spandrel glass, metal panels, thin stone, and other materials, such as terra cotta or FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic). The outer layer of gaskets is installed and the gaskets are compressed against the glass by the torque applied to fasteners securing a continuous pressure plate. Cookies are small files stored in your browser and are used by most websites to improve your overall experience. Aluminum frames are subject to deterioration of the coating and corrosion of aluminum in severe (industrial, coastal) environments and galvanic corrosion from contact with dissimilar metals. All connections and brackets located within the units insulated or primary weather seal zones are sealed with appropriate sealant materials during field installation. New Publications, The units should be completely assembled in a factory and shipped to the site for installation on the building. Units are hung from the top or face of the adjacent floor or building structure using mated brackets and field applied bolts with a minimum of clearance for access and assembly. Some curtain wall systems include condensation drainage provisions, such as condensate gutters, that are intended to collect and weep condensate from spandrel areas to the exterior; such condensate gutters and weeps are a violation of the air barrier of the curtain wall unless they are outboard of the backpan. Note: the following S-series details are courtesy of Richard Keleher Architect, Typical Elevation—Stick-Built Curtain Wall-Pressure Equalized-Outside Glazed (Figure S – 1)   PDF. Glass and metal curtain walls (Best practice guide, building technology) Issued also in French under title: Murs-rideaux en verre et métal. Salvage and demolition contractors generally require a minimum of 1,000 sq ft or more of window/curtain wall to make material recycling economical (smaller amounts are generally disposed as general trash). AAMA CWM-19, Curtain Wall Manual, was published in July 2019 and addresses many aspects of curtainwall design, specification, testing and installation.To explain the document’s history, target audience and to give an overview of how it can be used, the Fenestration & Glazing Industry Alliance (FGIA) hosted a webinar titled, “An Introduction to the Curtain Wall Manual (AAMA CWM-19).” Because these units are frequently custom designed, the amount of movement to be accommodated can be carefully engineered into the system. The anchors occur at each pair of vertical mullions along the edge of slab or spandrel beam. The metal sheet should be at least two inches behind the glass and may be painted or formed to create a texture, but reflective surfaces add the most visual depth to the wall. Perimeter sealants, properly designed and installed, have a typical service life of 10 to 15 years although breaches are likely from day one. White marble should not be used due to its susceptibility to deformation due to hysteresis (thin stone is not covered in this chapter). Both the unitized and stick-built systems are designed to be either interior or exterior glazed systems. Key frame drainage features include slope to the exterior at surfaces that collect water (slope top of exposed horizontal mullion surfaces, slope at flashings), large (3/8 inch diameter or a slot 5/16" x 3/8" minimum) weep holes closely spaced (three weep holes per each section of horizontal mullion between vertical mullions, typically), and drainage at every horizontal frame (do not use vertical frames to drain past horizontal frames). For this reason, do not insulate between the interior portion of mullions and adjacent wall construction either. Unusual or custom details, such as copings, deep sills, projected windows, spandrel areas and shadow box can dramatically alter performance. The American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) has developed a new manual providing guidelines for the design of curtainwalls. This positioning utilizes the back span of the mullion above the anchoring point at the slab to counteract the deflection of the mullion below the slab. The goal of 'Whole Building' Design is to create a successful high-performance building by applying an integrated design and team approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. It is common practice to incorporate thermal breaks of low conductivity materials, traditionally PVC, Neoprene rubber, polyurethane and more recently polyester-reinforced nylon, for improved thermal performance. Minimize the proportion of framing exposed to the outdoors. Curtain wall design should start with the assumption that external glazing seals, perimeter sealant joints and curtain wall sills will leak. Curtain wall systems must transfer back to floor structure or intermediate framing both their own dead load plus any live loads, which consist primarily of positive and negative wind loads but might also include a snow load applied to large horizontal areas, seismic loads, maintenance loads and others. Curtain wall systems range from manufacturer's standard catalog systems to specialized custom walls. Common curtain wall durability problems include the following: Glazing failures (see Glazing). There is a limited market for salvaged steel and wood frames. Where stick systems require multiple steps to erect and seal the wall, unitized walls arrive on the site completely assembled allowing the floors to be closed in more quickly. For high-rise construction interior glazing is sometimes used due to access and logistics of replacing glass from a swing stage. Detailing of spandrels, shadow boxes and interface with adjacent construction must maintain the continuity of the air barrier and rainscreen to function properly with a pressure-equalized rainscreen curtain wall framing system. AAMA + IGMA have unified as of Jan. 1, 2020 to create the Fenestration and Glazing Industry Alliance, or FGIA. The mullion dimensions tend to be slightly larger than a stick system due to their open section as compared to the tube shape of a standard stick curtain wall section. Some curtain wall systems incorporate separators that are less than ¼", making them "thermally improved". In large areas of stick framed curtain wall, a split vertical mullion will be introduced periodically to allow thermal movement. ISBN 0-660-19394-9 Cat. Repairs require exterior access. NH15-428/2004E 1. Occasionally, there are concerns relating to having too much uncontrolled daylight, sometimes referred to as glare. Publication of AAMA CWM-19, Curtain Wall Manual, marks the culmination of efforts by volunteers from AAMA Curtain Wall/Storefront Council member companies to update and enhance the former AAMA MCWM1-89, Metal Curtain Wall Manual. Exterior cover splice sleeves are installed at the face of the stack joint during unit field installation. Differential movement between curtain wall units is accommodated at the vertical and horizontal unit joints. In cold climates insulation should be installed between the back pan and the exterior cladding in order to maintain the dew point outboard of the back pan so that the back pan acts as an air and vapor barrier. Adjoining modules to mitigate exterior noise the panel into small pieces and safe!: Photographs, figures, and transportation movements Fire Containment system must be to. And properly sealed or painted with baked-on fluoropolymer paint members at each pair of vertical mullions drains to the vertical. 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