[a] For example, a very polar (hydrophilic) solute such as urea is very soluble in highly polar water, less soluble in fairly polar methanol, and practically insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene. In accordance with Le Chatelier's Principle, when the dissolution process is endothermic (heat is absorbed), solubility increases with rising temperature. [Ag+] = [Cl−], in the absence of other silver or chloride salts. a In contrast, table salt (NaCl) has a higher Ksp and is, therefore, more soluble. Some salts are not fully dissociated in solution. For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of solubility is typically weak and usually neglected in practice. These cycles have been used for attempts at first principles predictions (solving using the fundamental physical equations) using physically motivated solvent models,[25] to create parametric equations and QSPR models[28][26] and combinations of the two. In contrast, a non-polar or lipophilic solute such as naphthalene is insoluble in water, fairly soluble in methanol, and highly soluble in non-polar benzene.[16]. Thus, it takes less energy to solvate the molecules in amorphous phase. The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant. However, the performance of the method may be affected by the formation supersaturated solutions. The solubility constant is a true constant only if the activity coefficient is not affected by the presence of any other solutes that may be present. s A mixture of gasoline and sugar can therefore be separated by filtration or extraction with water. The methods used fall broadly into two categories, static and dynamic. The thermodynamic solubility constant is defined for large monocrystals. Solubility products are often expressed in logarithmic form. Product is an amorphous re-granulate of an intrinsic viscosity in the range of 0.55–0.7 dℓ/g, depending on how complete pre-drying of PET flakes has been done. Dissolution is not an instantaneous process. The two common thermodynamic cycles used involve either the calculation of the free energy of sublimation (solid to gas without going through a liquid state) and the free energy of solvating a gaseous molecule (gas to solution), or the free energy of fusion (solid to a molten phase) and the free energy of mixing (molten to solution). This effect is generally small unless particles become very small, typically smaller than 1 μm. For example, at ambient temperature, for calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, lg Ksp is ca. A number of computer programs are available to do the calculations. The principle outlined above under polarity, that like dissolves like, is the usual guide to solubility with organic systems. A popular aphorism used for predicting solubility is "like dissolves like" also expressed in the Latin language as "Similia similibus solventur". The solubility, S, in the absence of a common ion can be calculated as follows. If the process is very slow solvent evaporation may be an issue. q These models provide efficient predictions of solubility and represent the current standard. Intrinsic (AKA intensive) properties are properties that are within the substance. 온도, 용매와 용질의 종류 등에 영향을 받는다.대부분의 경우 온도가 높아질수록 고체의 용해도는 증가하고, 기체의 용해도는 감소한다. [15] This statement indicates that a solute will dissolve best in a solvent that has a similar chemical structure to itself. This is helpful as calculating the free energy of solvation directly is extremely difficult. The term "intrinsic solubility" is used to describe the solubility of the un-ionized form in the absence of acid or alkali. The logarithm of these two values enables compounds to be ranked in terms of hydrophilicity (or hydrophobicity). This kind of solubility is of great importance in geology, where it results in formation of metamorphic rocks. That is, the lines show the maximum amount of a component that can be added to another component and still be in solid solution. [14] Dissolution of weak acids in alkaline media is similarly important. The solvus or solubility line (or curve) is the line (or lines) on a phase diagram that give the limits of solute addition. An equilibrium expression for this reaction can be written, as for any chemical reaction (products over reactants): where Ko is called the thermodynamic solubility constant. The ability to accurately predict a molecule's solubility represents potentially large financial savings in many chemical product development processes, such as pharmaceuticals. Let the concentration of [Ag+](aq) be denoted by x. Ksp for AgCl is equal to 1.77×10−10 mol2 dm−6 at 25 °C, so the solubility is 1.33×10−5 mol dm−3. The rate of dissolution can be often expressed by the Noyes–Whitney equation or the Nernst and Brunner equation[17] of the form: For dissolution limited by diffusion (or mass transfer if mixing is present), Cs is equal to the solubility of the substance. The solubility is favored by entropy of mixing (ΔS) and depends on enthalpy of dissolution (ΔH) and the hydrophobic effect. Solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes of pharmaceutical interest may be obtained by a process called "Chasing equilibrium solubility". 10H2O) below the transition temperature, but a different hydrate above that temperature. Capacity of a substance to dissolve in a solvent in a homogeneous way, "Soluble" redirects here. This process, known as liquid–liquid extraction, is an important technique in synthetic chemistry. توازن الانحلالية هو نوع من التوازن الديناميكي يوجد عندما يكون مركب كيميائي في الحالة الصلبة في حالة التوازن الكيميائي مع محلول من هذا المركب. 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