Filters had an average pore size of 10-15 μm, while all identified EB had dimensions of 3.19 × 1.33 μm (length SD = 1.770 μm, width SD = 0.671 μm). These findings could indicate a strong association between Oxalis plants and diazotrophic oxalotrophic EB. 2008;278:1–9. Biol J Linn Soc. PubMed Central  Many plants partner with micro-organisms called Frankia, a group of Actinobacteria. Tree samples were generated in MrBayes (v. 3.2) using the nst = mixed command for model selection and a gamma rate correction for 2 X 107 generations under otherwise default settings. I now suspect it is wood sorrel (oxalis).I hadn't been vigorously weeding it out because I thought it was clover and its root nodules were fixing nitrogen and enriching my soil. CT = cotyledons, FL = foliar leaf, RD = radicle. Oxalotrophic bacteria have been isolated from various habitats [37], but are most commonly found in the rhizosphere and roots of plants that excrete large amounts of oxalate. The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds, such as ammonia, by natural agencies or various industrial processes. Nitrogen is fixed, or combined, in nature as nitric oxide by lightning and ultraviolet rays, but more significant amounts of nitrogen are fixed as ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates by soil microorganisms. This is when nitrogen fixing plants are useful. Google Scholar. 2005/Sumpavapol et al. Fungal isolates were documented and identified, but are not discussed in this article. The Not-So-Great Imposter; when Wood Sorrel looks like Clover Q. I have had a 'clover-looking' growth invading my vegetable garden for a very long time. Three individuals of each morphotype per Oxalis species from each location were kept to test accuracy of morphotype identification. Google Scholar. Protoplasma. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. van der Heijden MGA, Bardgett RD, Van Straalen NM. PubMed Central  (N2-fixer) and Bacillus licheniformis (P-solubilizer), both from a semiarid mangrove rhizosphere. A research sample collection permit was obtained from the Western Cape Nature Conservation Board, South Africa for all seeds harvested from the wild. 1994;22:4673–80. Indian J Microbiol. 2001;67:150–6. Although the factors driving this remarkable Cape geophyte diversity are still poorly understood, geographical distribution, climatic factors (rainfall quantity and reliability) and plant growth form (storage organ size) have been suggested [21]. Plants were dug out with minimal disturbance to the below-ground organs and all excess soil was shaken off, until no soil was visible on roots and bulbs. PCR amplification reactions were performed using 25 μL reaction mixtures consisting of 9 μL dH2O, 2.5 μL MgCl2 (25 mM), 0.25 μL of each primer (10 μM), 12 μL KapaTAQ (KM1000, Kapa Biosystems) and 1 μL DNA (326 to 498 ng/μL). Because of these bacteria, legumes have the nitrogen necessary to make lots of proteins, which, in turn, is why beans are such a good source of dietary protein for humans and other animals. 2015;34:89–99. Recently it has been suggested that plant-microbial interactions play an important role in generating, shaping and maintaining ecosystem diversity within the Cape [10, 11]. (b) one (i), three (ii), five (iii) and 10 (iv) days after germination. 3a–e). Sahin N. Isolation and characterization of a diazotrophic, oxalate-oxidizing bacterium from sour grass (Oxalis pes-caprae L.). The impact of alien plant invasion on mycorrhizas in mountain fynbos vegetation. For surface sterilization, samples were washed in a 33% dilution of household bleach (±5% sodium hypochlorite) for 1 min and 75% ethanol for 1 min, interspersed with three one-minute washes in sterile water. 1970;11:119–28. It occurs in two steps, ammonification and nitrification. Endophytic bacteria and their potential applications. Slides were stained with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit (Life Technology), using 100 μL per slide. To assess accuracy of endophyte morphotyping, three replicates from 25 different bacterial morphotypes were sequenced, with the expectation that the DNA sequences of each morphotype triplet would be identical. PCR products were sequenced at the Central Analytical Facility at Stellenbosch University. Sequences were aligned using the embedded ClustalW function [26] in BioEdit v. 7.2.6 [27]. Leguminous plants such as alfalfa and clover (perennials), and beans, peanuts, and soybeans … Bacillus endophytes were ubiquitous and diverse across species and plant bodies, and were prominent in seeds. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on NITROGEN FIXATION. Bacterial endophytes associated with Oxalis, the most species-rich geophytic genus form the Cape Flora in southern Africa was studied. Biodiversity: so much more than legs and leaves. This discovery suggests unexpected ways in which 1956;46:184–93. Microorganisms. 2009, B. bataviensis Heyrman et al. The most likely bacterial species identifications were based on 16S sequences and phylogenetic comparison (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Article  Bacilio-Jiménez M, Aguilar-Flores S, del Valle MV, Pérez A, Zepeda A, et al. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Lamont B. Mechanisms for enhancing nutrient uptake in plants, with particular reference to mediterranean South Africa and Western Australia. Before samples were processed for endophyte isolation, plant roots were gently washed in 5 ml sterile water in order to obtain rhizosphere samples. Fluorescent microscopy was implemented in order to visualize endophytic bacteria in cryo-sectioned seeds. 2013;3:595–620. For the remaining two replicate sets, one sequence differed from the other two. 1979 [34, 35]. This indicated that these EB are generalist endophytes that are not host species-, organ- or germination strategy-specific.

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