boubon = ‘swelling in the groin’), this was bubonic plague. It is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. To reduce the chance of death, antibiotics must be given within 24 hours of first symptoms. Victims were too numerous to be buried and were stacked high in the city’s churches and city wall towers, their Christian doctrine preventing their disposal by cremation. In panic the Genoese traders fled in galleys with ‘sickness clinging to their bones’ to Constantinople and across the Mediterranean to Messina, Sicily, where the great pandemic of Europe started. Pneumonic plague may also occur if a person with bubonic or septicemic plague is untreated and the bacteria spread to the lungs. On more than one occasion plague irrevocably changed the social and economic fabric of society. Yersinia pestis is a very pathogenic organism to both humans and animals and before antibiotics had a very high mortality rate. 2 Plague has spread from central parts of Africa to the Mediterranean and it, has caused a death around 40 million. The Byzantine court historian, Procopius of Caesarea, in his work History of the Wars, described people with fever, delirium and buboes He wrote that the epidemic was one ‘by which the whole human race came near to be annihilated’. The plague re-emerged from its wild rodent reservoir in the remote Chinese province of Yunnan in 1855. In History  Streptomycin, gentamicin, the tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol are all effective against pneumonic plague. Without early treatment, patients may die. The Great Plague of London of 1665 to 1666 . From there the disease advanced along the tin and opium routes and reached the provincial capital of K’unming in 1866, the Gulf of Tonkin in 1867, and the Kwangtung province port of Pakhoi (now Pei-hai) in 1882. The course of development of communities and nations was altered several times. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Four years later in 1898 his successor, Paul-Louis Simond, a fellow Asia and migrated westward on the sea routes from China and India. The three great plague pandemics had different geographic origins and paths of spread. In 664 plague laid waste to Ireland, and in England it came to be known as the Plague of Cadwaladyr’s Time, after a Welsh king who contracted plague but survived it in 682. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. When infected, the proventriculus of the flea becomes blocked by a mass of bacteria. The social and economic disruption caused by the pandemic marked the end of Roman rule and led to the birth of culturally distinctive societal groups that later formed the nations of medieval Europe.12. And the body showed no change from its previous colour, nor was it hot as might be expected when attacked by a fever, nor indeed did any inflammation set in, but the fever was of such a languid sort from its commencement and up till evening that neither to the sick themselves nor to a physician who touched them would it afford any suspicion of danger. John Ashburton- Thompson, the chief medical officer, recorded the epidemic and confirmed that rats were the source and their fleas were the vectors in the epidemic. 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Plague is also transmissible person to person when in its pneumonic form. A plague vaccine is not currently available for use in the United States. Often whole families were wiped out and villages abandoned. Bubonic plague is the most common form of plague. The pneumonia progresses for 2 to 4 days and may cause respiratory failure and shock. The plague broke down the normal divisions between the upper and lower classes and led to the emergence of a new middle class.17, 9 The plague lead to a preoccupation with death as evident from macabre artworks such as the ‘Triumph of Death’ by Pieter Breughel the Elder in 1562, which depicted in a panoramic landscape armies of skeletons killing people of all social orders from peasants to kings and cardinals in a variety of macabre and cruel ways. Part 1 – Phthisis, consumption and the White Plague. Kenneth L. Gage, C. Ben Beard, in Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2017. History Of Pneumonic Plague. 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