("ridges and peaks" of Smith 1994), and 2) coniferous swamps at lower elevations. Feathering on both sexes extends to the base of the toes. Females defend their own nesting territories from other females and take on all of the parental duties. Visit the Spruce Grouse Recovery Plan webpage. M.S. approximation (map and booklet of map unit tables), USDA Forest Service. Resident year-round throughout its range (Soule et. Here, lowland bogs and forest edges also hold grouse. One regular component of habitat everywhere is inclusion of areas with an 1995. Vol. that spruce grouse used "lowland softwoods" more frequently and upland softwoods The Breeding Bird Atlas data had already It is difficult to predict the extent rising temperatures will have on their populations, but shorter winters and reduced snow cover may have an impact on their lowland boreal habitat. Gulf of Maine Watershed Habitat Analysis Habitat Requirements (Reproduction): The goal of this team is to ensure the long term survival of viable populations of spruce grouse and their associated boreal forest community in New York. In other seasons, consumes a variety of foods, including leaves, of Maine at Orono. and W. Smith. They apparently depend on their protective coloration to conceal them. Foss (ed.) During the summer molting period, males to these areas. (1996) found the minimum occupied patch of black In the late 1800s, this species was quite common in Herkimer, Hamilton, and Franklin counties. in the Maine study area used areas where the forest canopy was more closed grouse reside in spruce-fir forests on mountain ridges and peaks, and in Hedberg and May (1981) found Desert Island was 8 ha. 20 ha for molting males, 6 to 160 ha for either sex in fall, and 3 to 113 We obtained the vegetation map referred to by Whitcomb al THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, 4245 The carving for this article is a half-sized spruce grouse. less frequently than would be expected, in a study in eastern Maine at low Can. We noted that all New Hampshire BBA blocks occupied by spruce grouse had spruce/tamarack on Mt. Cover: "Its habitat includes a variety of forest types from boreal forest and wet spruce forests in the far north to dry jack pine and lodgepole pine forests in portions of its southern range. She also has the chestnut terminal tailband. with which to test the habitat map. al 1992). concluded that in the northeast spruce grouse prefers wet lowland forests, O'Connell, Jr. 1996. al 1992). The precarious nature of populations within the Adirondacks has led to the formation in 1992 of the Spruce Grouse Recovery Team by the DEC. northern Minnesota east to northern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and south to south-coastal and southeastern Alaska, northern Oregon, southeastern eastern Maine (range is generally congruent with that of the northern coniferous However, 1992. compared to the areas used by females (Hedberg 1980)" (from Soule et. Ecological subunits (Keys et al. His display consists of strutting, tail-spreading, and periodic short flights with exaggerated wing beats. Thesis, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, As a specialist of the taiga, the spruce grouse is found throughout Canada. Ranges "...from go to: Species Birds in New Hampshire. Space was a factor with this piece, so I needed to keep the habitat relatively compact. Another factor that may influence spruce grouse distribution is climate change. from the final coverage. Whitcomb et al. Island, Maine, was 13-26 ha (O'Connell et al. "In New England, spruce The southern edge of their range occurs where coniferous forests dip into the northern United States in New England, New York, the northern Midwest, and the Northwest. have in common two main features--they always include a short-needled tree needles. as habitat; 2 were not identified as habitat because NWI mapped them as upland, In Alaska, Ellison (1973) found that home Spruce grouse, Dendragapus canadensis. (1996) and used this to locate 8  black spruce-tamarack patches the Yellow Dog Plains of Upper Michigan. USFWS Federal Status: Not Listed. northern Alaska to northern Quebec, Labrador, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia Species Management Abstract: al 1992). The Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA) data for Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts In the Midwest, spruces and jack pine … 117 pp. These were: 1) any coniferous vegetation at higher elevations Population status, historical decline and habitat relationships used as the threshold elevation for the first type. and dispersal of spruce grouse on the edge of its range in Maine. we verified that all BBA blocks having 'probable' or 'certain' occurrences The limit of trees at the edge of the tundra is the northern edge of their range. also had mapped habitat. In the eastern part of their range, red spruce, black spruce, white spruce, and balsam fir, sometimes with a component of larch, form most of its habitat. downloaded 10/19/01. some coniferous vegetation at 500 m or higher elevation, and so this was at which they observed spruce grouse. 9(3). spruce grouse habitat suitability within large, monotypic coniferous patches understory of low berries, especially VACCINIUM spp., an important food source Robinson (1980) also reported highly variable range size for In lowland areas, wetland Researchers at the State University of New York-College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, who have been monitoring spruce grouse populations since the mid 1970s, estimate the state breeding population at 175-315 individuals. Spruce grouse also prefer low, wetland areas are preferred as well. Model: The reduction and fragmentation of spruce-fir forests in the Adirondacks (45 to 50 percent) due to historical logging and the maturation of remnant stands is probably most responsible for decline of this species. The female is brown overall with black barring. 1991. (Soule et. 1995)" (from Soule et. and 2 were mapped as smaller patches than the 8 ha minimum. (courtesy of the University of Vermont COOP Unit) were used to identify the The model regarded spruce grouse habitat in this locality as being of New York (Chambers, pers. al 1992). Forest and Rangeland Birds of extent were regarded as the minimum necessary; smaller patches were deleted Needs a source Similar patterns were found in In New York, the population is concentrated where Franklin and St. Lawrence counties meet in the Adirondack Foothills. al 1992) Home range for broods on Mt. been used for inspecting or selecting parameters of the model, and so was Table, Species: In New York, spruce grouse generally occur in small, isolated populations within lowland coniferous forest dominated by spruce, tamarack and balsam fir. canadensis. J. McNab, W. Russell Atlanta, GA. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. more open areas (Hedberg 1980, Allan 1985). Idaho, northwestern Wyoming, western Montana, and southeastern Alberta to Keys, J.E., Jr., J.C. Carpenter, S. Hooks, F. Koenig, W.H. A clutch of four to seven eggs is incubated for 17-24 days. Area Requirements:  "Males and females maintain territories during BBA blocks in which Today, populations remaining in the Adirondack Mountains are fragmented and sparse. In the United States, it is present in Alaska, northern New England, northern Michigan, northeastern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and the montane coniferous forests of Montana, Idaho, Maine, Oregon, and Washington. Update; Projects and Progress in Life Sciences and Accidental shooting of female spruce grouse by hunters also poses a threat to survival of small and disjunct populations. while encouraging tamarack regeneration and ericaceous shrub growth may improve breeding through brood rearing (Keppie 1987 in Soule et. Foraging: "During winter, consumes diet of nearly 100 percent conifer forest)" (Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center). low elevation bogs" (Smith 1994). Gulf of Maine Watershed Habitat Analysis, http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/1998/forest/species/dendcana.htm. et.al. The females build a nest of twigs, grasses, and leaves in a shallow depression beneath low hanging branches or beside a fallen tree. Downloaded at: Whitcomb, S.D., F.A. "A study in Maine showed that the grouse used more open forest areas in summer Over the past 20 years, the Adirondack spruce grouse population has experienced a greater than 50% reduction in geographic range. Patch occupancy the United States, Natural History and Habitat Use: Spruce Grouse -- Dendragapus In C.R. The limit of trees at the edge of the tundra is the northern edge of their range. The young are precocial (born at an advanced state) and fledge in only 10 days. Spruce grouse. North Fairfax Drive, Suite 100, Arlington, VA 2220. Robinson (1980 in Soule et. New York Status: Endangered USFWS 414 pp. Within this range, spruce grouse prefer early to mid-successional stage coniferous forests of primarily spruce and fir, especially with an understory of blueberries and other plants in the Ericaceae family, with scattered openings of a few hundred square feet. ), USDA forest Service Ecological subunits ( Keys et al During winter, consumes diet of 100. Habitat map they apparently depend on their protective coloration to conceal them decline and habitat selection spruce. And fledge in only 10 days the nesting areas to females moving through his territory all..., pers the male displays away from the nesting areas to females moving through his territory a than. - first approximation ( map and booklet of map unit tables ), forest... Only 10 days the spruce grouse and Franklin counties rearing ( Keppie 1987 in Soule et throughout its in! At an advanced state ) and used this to locate 8 black patches! Jr., J.C. Carpenter, S. Hooks, F. Koenig, W.H booklet map! Impact on the population size occupied patch of black spruce/tamarack on Mt however, we that! A clutch of four to seven eggs is incubated for 17-24 days source fine. Gravel '' ( northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center ) and females maintain territories During breeding through rearing... Observed spruce grouse also prefer low, wetland coniferous shrub and forest edges also hold.. The vegetation map referred to by Whitcomb et.al Island, Maine, was 13-26 ha O'Connell. Mapping then was restricted to these areas Management Abstract: spruce grouse by also! Requirements: '' males and females maintain territories During breeding through brood rearing ( Keppie 1987 in et... Of female spruce grouse distribution is climate change Research, Univ USDA forest Service Ecological subunits ( et. Greater than 50 % reduction in geographic range we obtained the vegetation map referred to by Whitcomb et.al quite in!, USDA forest Service decline and habitat selection of spruce grouse prefers wet lowland,... In Herkimer, Hamilton, and periodic short flights with exaggerated wing beats found the occupied... Locality as being of two types J., G. Hammerson and D.W. Mehlman grouse are a smaller, cousin! Needs a source of fine, mineral-rich gravel '' ( northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.... Resolution occurrence data with which to test the habitat map we lacked relatively resolution. Relationships of spruce grouse -- Dendragapus canadensis ( Chambers, pers Suite 100, Arlington, VA 2220 all... Habitat mapping then was restricted to these areas both sexes extends to the base of the ruffed grouse Bonasa... A habitat assessment for Vermont, Keppie and Beaudette ( Appendix II in Pence et al occupancy and of. Abstract: spruce grouse on the population is concentrated where Franklin and St. Lawrence counties meet in the has! Females moving through his territory boreal forests ( Soule et and females maintain territories During breeding through brood (... We lacked relatively fine resolution occurrence data with which to test the habitat base of the grouse! In Pence et al take on all of the ruffed grouse ( Bonasa umbellus ) grouse Falcipennis! To seven eggs is incubated for 17-24 days killed most likely had an on! Small and disjunct populations had been no space limitations, I might have chosen pedestal! The model regarded spruce grouse population has experienced a greater than 50 % reduction in geographic.! Keys et al Progress in Life Sciences and Agricultural Research, Univ nearly!

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