(2014) for Zambia finds that it depends on moral hazard, specifically in asymmetric information in the use of contraception. All errors are entirely our own. A. I have 2,000 USH to give you for your time. Hashemi et al. I. S, R. There are some studies that find a decrease in domestic violence (Hashemi et al. Samuelson (1956) shows that if the spouses agree to maximize a family social welfare function, subject to a pooled family budget constraint, About 82 percent of participants have completed primary school education, and 6.17 percent of participants have completed secondary school or have higher education level. Micro-credit Initiatives for Equitable and Sustainable Development: Who Pays, Household Bargaining over Fertility: Theory and Evidence from Malaysia, Time Preferences, and Public Transfers Paid to Women, Intra-household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach, The Distribution of Income and Expenditure within the Household, Portfolio Choice and Risk Attitudes: A Household Bargaining Approach. New Evidence from a Randomized Experiment, The Influence of Spouses on Household Decision Making Under Risk: An Experiment in Rural China, Birth Control and Female Empowerment: An Equilibrium Analysis, The Impact of Bolsa Família on Women's Decision-making Power, “Women's Bargaining Power In Household Economic Decisions: Evidence From Ghana.”, Intrahousehold Bargaining and Resource Allocation in Developing Countries. Peters (2011) studies a family planning program in Bangladesh and finds that women treated by the program are less likely to be able to make certain purchases without their husband's permission. Lim Some studies show the impact of household bargaining on consumption of specific goods. Carlsson B. In setting up the problem of the household, we rather simply wrote down a‘household utility function’ , which depended upon the leisure and consumption vector of each of the two individuals in the household. This presents some validation of the unitary household model. %PDF-1.4 %���� Peters , Pollak R., Wales T.. Maluccio Nash-bargained Household Decisions: Toward a Generalization of the Theory of Demand. R. I can pay this money to you now in cash. , Brown M.. McElroy The unitary model begins with a two-person household, consisting of a husband (m) and a wife (f), making joint decisions about consumption and time allocation. We then present the results of an artefactual experiment conducted in Uganda with spouses in order to test whether household members maximize common preferences or instead are willing to pay a significant cost to hide money from their spouse. Maluccio and Quisumbing (2003) show a positive correlation between indicators of female bargaining power and expenses on food and education for Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and South Africa. Y9,V2)�U�H��xH���#!��G�'c��sGa�3�DČ�I--"B,�͓"���ǝ���=�"�£UW�-R�Rއs��d���Tz�m]��]o�����^H$. Iversen . First, this data collection was part of a larger panel data collection where individuals had been visited four times previously. M. . G. S Before I go, I have one final question. The couples’ risk preferences become more similar the richer the spouses and the higher the relative income contribution of wives. B . Thus, this model raises the issue that parents may provide too little protection . . weekly bills. Given both the scarcity of convincing empirical support for the unitary model and its relative lack of theoretical foundations, a number of researchers , Martinsson P., Qin P., Sutter M.. Chiappori Ruvalcaba Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. C , Arends-Kuenning M.. Rahman In section 1 we discuss existing evidence of the unitary model of the household. In modern terminology, this is called a ‘unitary’ model. There are several features worth noticing. Gray (1998) shows for some states of United States that marital-property laws determine how unilateral-divorce laws affect household bargaining. Recent research lends strong support to an intrahousehold model that considers the existence of other individuals in the households that, through a bargaining process, play a complex role in household decision making. There are many alternative empirical studies rejecting the unitary model and supporting the noncooperative approach, which assumes that spouses have different preferences and depend on bargaining power to allocate household resources. 122 0 obj<>stream Intrahousehold Bargaining and the Demand for Consumer Durables in Brazil. Keywords: unitary, collective, intrahousehold allocation, distribution factors, demand. Section 4 concludes. T. Ashraf De Brauw et al. (2009) study the CCTs PROGRESA program in Mexico and find that poor rural women that have resources under their control are more likely to spent on investment on children and in small-scale livestock. Keywords Unitary Æ Collective Æ Intrahousehold allocation Æ Distribution factors Æ Demand JEL Classifications D13 1. . The Unitary Household was a cooperatively owned boardin ghouse near Union Square in New York City, run according to the principles of Equitable Commerce. JEL code: D13. S. The literature also stresses the impact of household decision-making on labor supply and time allocation. Moreover, 52 percent of the female respondents are trusted by their spouses, while 41.1 percent of the male respondents are trusted by their spouses, suggesting that male participants are more likely to choose higher income yet female respondents are more likely to choose higher control over income. M. B. , Udry C.. Friedberg There is growing evidence that the unitary household model fails to describe intrahousehold decision making. If you invest in business A, the money will be doubled to 4,000 USH. Both of these approaches however can lead to a Pareto optimal outcome. Our work is very close to that of Zou (2015), who conducts an artefactual experiment in Burkina Faso in which married individuals reveal their relative valuation of spouse's earnings over their own. , Oreffice S.. de Brauw 0000002686 00000 n 0000001779 00000 n Husbands’ expectations of their wives contributions are higher than their wives’ actual contributions, and wives’ expectations of their husbands’ are lower than their husbands’ actual contributions. . In Ghana, Doss (1996) shows that using the assets held by women in the households as a measure of bargaining power has implications for household expenditure decisions. Section 4 concludes. Therefore, the case where the Pareto weight is assumed to depend on DFs, but not on prices and total expenditure, is We then discuss the results of an artefactual experiment conducted in Uganda with spouses in order to test whether household members maximize common preferences, or instead are willing to pay a significant cost to hide money from their spouse. ( February, 1995 ) Keywords: unitary, collective, intrahousehold,... Account of the games are presented in table 1 enjoy more leisure time unitary collective... In only some treatments, meaning information is context dependent you and your partner where microcredits given to women analyzed! Law increases wives labor supply and this change reflects changes in home-production hours and in leisure time and dedicate time... A and business B, the money will be tripled to 6,000 USH model... Money usage differs between spouses laws affect household bargaining affects investment and agriculture supply Lim! Mcelroy M. B., Horney M. J.. 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Too little protection M. J.. Oreffice S the family decision-making process the!

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