It has important uses as a fertilizer and feed supplement, as well as a starting material for the manufacture of plastics and drugs. Figure 4 A line diagram of the car above illustrating five key elements in the design of the exhaust system. Figure 3 A Mercedes-Benz E-Class E300 BlueTEC Hybrid car. Ammonia reduces the oxides of nitrogen (mainly nitric oxide), formed in the combustion processes, to nitrogen. Urea, the diamide of carbonic acid. Containing 46% N, it is the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer, and is readily available as free-flowing prills (granules). The urea is added to the exhaust gases as a 32% aqueous solution often known as BlueTEC. Diesel engines run at high temperatures and nitrogen and oxygen, from the air, are able to react together under these conditions to produce high concentrations of nitric oxide. 1. Before you spread the urea pellets or granules, water the area, as this … The process is complex but the overall reaction can be represented thus: The system is known as Urea SCR (urea-based selective catalytic reduction) and can reduce pollution by nitrogen oxides to almost zero. The diesel engine is combined with an electric motor which allows for purely electric driving even at high speeds which reduces the amount of pollutants significantly compared to a pure diesel engine. It is the cheapest form of nitrogen fertilizer to transport and it is also the least likely to 'cake'. It is expected that the global annual production will increase to over 200 million tonnes by 20182. Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide to produce urea. While over 90% of urea produced is used as a fertilizer, it has other uses, which include the manufacture of the me… One series is based on transition metal oxides (for example those of vanadium and tungsten) on a carrier, titanium dioxide. It is therefore favoured in developing countries. The amount of nitrogen noxides emitted is further reduced by the use of BlueTEC solution, which converts the oxides in the exhaust to nitrogen and water vapour. However it is not possible to use ammonia directly as it is too volatile and is poisonous. Research indicates that urea should contain no more than 0.25 percent biuret for use in foliar sprays. Urea-Water-Solution Properties: Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension in an Under-Saturated Solution. It is therefore favoured in developing countries. Another series is based on zeolites, in which some of the cations have been exchanged with a metal such copper. For many crops, the quantity of nitrogen applied at one time shouldn’t exceed 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre. It is the cheapest form of nitrogen fertilizer to transport and it is also the least likely to 'cake'. Methanal plastics (Formaldehyde plastics), Poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) (Polymethyl methacrylate), Poly(tetrafluoroethene) (Polytetrafluoroethylene). Containing 46% N, it is the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer, and is readily available as free-flowing prills(granules). A neutron-scattering study shows that the urea molecule can ‘substitute’ quite readily for water in the hydrogen-bonded network: the radial distribution function of urea around water in a 1:4 solution looks remarkably like that of water around water. Urea dissolves in its own weight in water but becomes increasingly difficult to dissolve in water since the concentration increases and it is an endothermic reaction the chemical equation is CO(NH2)2+H2O———2NH3+CO2 In this photo, a Mercedes bus is being filled with BlueTEC solution (with the blue nozzle to the lower tank) and diesel (the upper tank). Urea is the world's most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer and indeed more urea is manufactured by mass than any other organic chemical. Urea itself also forms important resins. Figure 5 An aerial view of a large plant in Alberta, Canada, in which ammonia is synthesized. Figure 1 This rice paddy field in Thailand has been treated with urea, the nitrogen-containing fertilizer that is most used in developing countries. Potash Corporation, 20132.  International Fertilizer Industry Association, 2014. When applying urea fertilizer, make sure the outside temperature is between 32 degrees and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Figure 6 These small spheres of urea are known as prills. Urea is thermally decomposed to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea is the world's most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer and indeed more urea is manufactured by mass than any other organic chemical. At normal atmospheric temperatures, approximately 1 pound of urea can be dissolved in 1 pound of water. Instead a solution of urea in water is injected into the hot gases emerging from the engine in the exhaust. It is a colorless, crystalline substance that melts at 132.7 degrees C (271 degrees F) and decomposes before boiling. Several catalysts have been used. This is the reverse of the process used to make ammonia: Unlike ammonia, urea is safe and easy to handle. Figure 2 Urea tanks are now standard equipment for most new diesel lorries, buses and cars in many countries. Ammonia and carbon dioxide are heated together at 450 K and 200 atm pressure. They are slightly smaller than urea sold as granules and are particularly useful when the fertilizer is being applied by hand. First ammonium carbamate is formed, which rapidly decomposes to form urea: Figure 5 An aerial view of a large plant in Alberta, Canada, in which ammonia is synthesizedand then converted to urea.By kind permission of Agrium Inc. Much of the urea is prilled (Figure 6) and sold in that form. 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