This bird shows extreme sexual dimorphism, with males nearly twice the size of females. The Scottish population became extinct, but has been reintroduced from the Swedish population; in Germany it is on the "Red List" as a species threatened by extinction and is no longer found in the lower mountainous areas of Bavaria; in the Bavarian Forest, the Black Forest and the Harz mountains numbers of surviving western capercaillie decline even under massive efforts to breed them in captivity and release them into the wild. From the beginning of September the families start to dissolve. Western capercaillies are known to hybridise occasionally with black grouse (these hybrids being known by the German name Rackelhahn) and the closely related black-billed capercaillie. The eggs are about the same size and form as chicken eggs, but are more speckled with brown spots. In 10 days the clutch is full. It is highest in sun-flooded open, old mixed forests with spruce, pine, fir and some beech with a rich ground cover of Vaccinium species. The western capercaillie is a highly specialized herbivore, which feeds almost exclusively on blueberry leaves and berries with some grass seeds and fresh shoots of sedges in summertime. Please note flash is required to use the features of this site. The current spelling was standardised by William Yarrell in 1843. From this time on they start to sleep in trees on warm nights. It was even named as the bird most likely to become extinct in the UK by 2015. In Switzerland, they are found in the Swiss Alps and in the Jura; they are also present in the Austrian and Italian Alps. The Scots borrowing is spelled capercailzie (the Scots use of z represents an archaic spelling with yogh and is silent; see Mackenzie (surname)). In contrast females are camouflaged in various shades of brown so that they are less likely to be seen by predators whilst incubating their eggs. Photos. A list of BBC audio related to "Western capercaillie". This is particularly the case for the capture of long-term data on rare species that are prone to disturbance or are otherwise difficult to survey. At an age of about 6 weeks they are fully able to maintain their body temperature. To digest this coarse winter food, the birds need grit: small stones or gastroliths which they actively search for and devour. Explore 94,800 selected recordings of music, spoken word, and human and natural environments. [4], The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae under its current binomial name.[5]. The cocks continue courting on the ground: This is the main courting season. different spe- The most serious threats to the species are habitat degradation, particularly conversion of diverse native forest into often single-species timber plantations, and to birds colliding with fences erected to keep deer out of young plantations. Their toe rows of small, elongated horn tacks provide a snowshoe effect that led to the German family name "Rauhfußhühner", literally translated as "rough feet chickens". [3], The genus name is derived from the Latin name of a game bird, probably the black grouse. Western Capercaillie (song) male, song. The presence of a nest nearby is often indicated by distinctively enlarged and malformed droppings known as "clocker droppings". The males are particularly distinctive with a chocolate-grey coloured back and wings, white markings on the tail and wing and a crimson eyebrow. Cocks typically range from 74 to 85 cm (29 to 35 in) in length with wingspan of 90 to 125 cm (34–49 in) and an average weight of 4.1 kg (9.0 lb). western capercaillie sound. The western capercaillie is adapted to its original habitats—old coniferous forests with a rich interior structure and dense ground vegetation of Vaccinium species under a light canopy. Male and female western capercaillie can easily be differentiated by their size and colouration. Western Capercaillie bird photo call and song/ Tetrao urogallus (Tetrao urogallus) While flying they rest in short gliding phases. [24], A traditional gamebird, the capercaillie has been widely hunted with guns and dogs throughout its territory in central and northern Europe. "Pattern and causes of natural mortality of capercaille, Aigas Field Centre Capercaillie Ecology and breeding programme pages, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_capercaillie&oldid=984076293, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 01:03. There is a bright red spot of naked skin above each eye. There are several subspecies, listed from west to east:[6]. Full sound archive catalogue All eggs hatch in close proximity after which the hen and clutch abandon the nest where they are at their most vulnerable. As hatching nears, hens sit tighter on the nest and will only flush from the nest if disturbed in very close proximity. These low-frequency components temporally overlap with the Whetting phase (96% of its duration) and they significantly contribute to the distinct This species has an estimated range of 1,000,000–10,000,000 km2 (390,000–3,860,000 sq mi) and a population of between 1.5 and 2 million individuals in Europe alone. The global population is listed as "least concern" under the IUCN,[1] although the populations of Central Europe are declining and fragmented, or possibly extirpated. The annual range can be several square kilometres (hundreds of hectares) when storms and heavy snowfall force the birds to winter at lower altitudes. [21] Large numbers are taken by northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), including adults but usually young ones, and Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo) will occasionally pick off a capercaillie of any age or size; they normally prefer mammalian foods. Western capercaillies are not elegant fliers due to their body weight and short, rounded wings. With their very muscular stomachs, gizzard stones function like a mill and break needles and buds into small particles. The importance of bioacoustics for biological research and the survey and monitoring of bird populations is becoming increasingly recognized. In the lowlands such forest structures developed over centuries by heavy exploitation, especially by the use of litter and grazing livestock. Spring territories are about 25 hectares (62 acres) per bird. The western capercaillie lives on a variety of food types, including buds, leaves, berries, insects, grasses and in the winter mostly conifer needles. These criteria are met best in old forest stands with spruce and pine, dense ground vegetation and local tree regrowth on dry slopes in southern to western expositions. [9] The body feathers are dark grey to dark brown, while the breast feathers are dark metallic green. Towards the end of the courting season the hens arrive on the courting grounds, also called "leks", Swedish for "play". [22][23] White-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) are more likely to take water birds than upland-type birds but have been recorded preying on capercaillie around the White Sea. Territories of cocks and hens may overlap. Abandoned nests often contain "caeacal" droppings; the discharge from the hens' appendixes built up over the incubation period. One can see the food remains in their droppings, which are about 1 cm (1⁄2 in) in diameter and 5–6 cm (2–2 1⁄2 in) in length. The subspecies show increasing amounts of white on the underparts of males from west to east, almost wholly black with only a few white spots underneath in western and central Europe to nearly pure white in Siberia, where the black-billed capercaillie occurs. In Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Romania populations are large, and it is a common bird to see in forested regions; especially in Central Finland, that it occurs in the coat of arms of the region and is also a regional bird.[11]. If you are a member of a licensed UK HE/FE institution you can access more recordings, download tracks and more... You have been logged out of the system due to inactivity. The males are particularly distinctive with a chocolate-grey coloured back and wings, white markings on the tail and wing and a crimson eyebrow. We analyzed the display vocalizations of Western Capercaillie males kept in breeding centers and identified harmonically structured signals with a fundamental frequency of 28.7 ± 1.2 Hz (25.6–31.6 Hz). Available insect supply is strongly influenced by weather—dry and warm conditions allow a fast growth of the chicks, cold and rainy weather leads to high mortality. The calls of a female capercaillie with her chicks are featured in this recording. They mainly feed on Vaccinium species, especially bilberry, find cover in young tree growth, and use the open spaces when flying. This initially starts with a gurgling sound accelerating to a drum roll followed by a popping sound and then finally a wheezing or gurgling sound to finish off, all of which is usually accompanied by a dance which ends in a ‘flutter jump’. Can you tell us more about the context of the recording? The average clutch size is eight eggs but may amount up to 12, rarely only four or five eggs. The sexes can be distinguished very easily by the size of their footprints. Dense and young forests are avoided as there is neither cover nor food, and flight of these large birds is greatly impaired.

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